Golby Lab, A Surgical Brain Mapping Laboratory
golby Golby Lab, A
              Surgical Brain Mapping Laboratory
Golby Lab
                Research Fund

Image-Guided Neurosurgery

Editor: Alexandra Golby, MD
Published Date: May 5, 2015. 1st Edition

Image-Guided Neurosurgery About the book: Throughout its history, the field of neurosurgery has been revolutionized by improvements in imaging and visualization. From the development of the pneumoencephalogram, to the operating microscope, to cross sectional imaging with CT and later MRI, to stereotaxy and neuronavigation, the ability to visualize the pathology and surrounding neural structures has been the driving factor leading surgical innovation and improved outcomes. The last decade has seen perhaps the greatest impact of imaging in neurosurgery. Several examples include the ubiquitous use of neuronavigation in cranial surgery, the increasing adoption of intra-operative MRI, and the development of numerous devices designed to harness these advances for better patient care. Image-Guided Neurosurgery is a comprehensive reference on the application of contemporary imaging technologies used in neurosurgery. Specific techniques will be discussed for brain biopsies, brain tumor resection, deep brain stimulation, and more. Image-Guided Neurosurgery is written for neurosurgeons, interventional radiologists, neurologists, psychiatrists, and radiologists, as well as technical experts in imaging, image analysis, computer science, and biomedical engineering.



  1. Non-rigid Registration of 3D Ultrasound for Neurosurgery using Automatic Feature Detection and Matching. Int J Comput Assist Radiol Surg. 2018 Jun 4.
  2. Free water modeling of peritumoral edema using multi-fiber tractography: Application to tracking the arcuate fasciculus for neurosurgical planning. PLoS One. 2018 May 10;13(5):e0197056.
  3. 3D printing and intraoperative neuronavigation tailoring for skull base reconstruction after extended endoscopic endonasal surgery: proof of concept. J Neurosurg. 2018 Mar 2:1-8.
  4. Image Registration to Compensate for EPI Distortion in Patients with Brain Tumors: An Evaluation of Tract-Specific Effects. J Neuroimaging. 2018 Mar;28(2):173-82.
  5. Challenges and Techniques for Presurgical Brain Mapping with Functional MRI. Neuroimage Clin. 2017 Dec 6;17:794-803.


  1. SlicerDMRI: Open Source Diffusion MRI Software for Brain Cancer Research. Cancer Res. 2017 Nov 1;77(21):e101-e103.
  2. Retrospective Study Comparing Model-Based Deformation Correction to Intraoperative Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Image-Guided Neurosurgery. J Med Imaging (Bellingham). 2017 Jul;4(3):035003.
  3. Performance of Unscented Kalman Filter Tractography in Edema: Analysis of the Two-tensor Model. Neuroimage Clin. 2017 Jun 26;15:819-31.
  4. White Matter Tractography for Neurosurgical Planning: A Topography-based Review of the Current State of the Art. Neuroimage Clin. 2017 Jun 15;15:659-672.
  5. Automated White Matter Fiber Tract Identification in Patients with Brain Tumors. Neuroimage Clin. 2017 Mar;13:138-53.
  6. Applications of Ultrasound in the Resection of Brain Tumors. J Neuroimaging. 2017 Jan;27(1):5-15.


  1. Multimodal Navigation in Endoscopic Transsphenoidal Resection of Pituitary Tumors Using Image-Based Vascular and Cranial Nerve Segmentation: A Prospective Validation Study. World Neurosurg. 2016 Nov;95:406-13.
  2. Corticospinal Tract Modeling for Neurosurgical Planning by Tracking through Regions of Peritumoral Edema and Crossing Fibers using Two-Tensor Unscented Kalman Filter Tractography. Int J Comput Assist Radiol Surg. 2016 Aug;11(8):1475-86.
  3. An Electrocorticography Grid with Conductive Nanoparticles in a Polymer Thick Film on an Organic Substrate Improves CT and MR Imaging. Radiology. 2016 Aug;280(2):595-601.
  4. Label-Free Neurosurgical Pathology with Stimulated Raman Imaging. Cancer Res. 2016 Jun 15;76(12):3451-62.
  5. Vaccination with Irradiated Autologous Tumor Cells Mixed with Irradiated GM-K562 Cells Stimulates Antitumor Immunity and T Lymphocyte Activation in Patients with Recurrent Malignant Glioma. Clin Cancer Res. 2016 Jun 15;22(12):2885-96.
  6. Right Inferior Longitudinal Fasciculus Lesions Disrupt Visual-emotional Integration. Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci. 2016 Jun;11(6):945-51.
  7. The Value of Pre- and Intraoperative Adjuncts on the Extent of Resection of Hemispheric Low-Grade Gliomas: A Retrospective Analysis. J Neurol Surg A Cent Eur Neurosurg. 2016 Mar;77(2):79-87.
  8. Optical Technologies for Intraoperative Neurosurgical Guidance. Neurosurg Focus. 2016 Mar;40(3):E8.
  9. Intraoperative Real-time MRI-guided Stereotactic Biopsy Followed by Laser Thermal Ablation for Progressive Brain Metastases after Radiosurgery. J Clin Neurosci. 2016 Feb;24:68-73.
  10. Altered Functional Connectivity in Lesional Peduncular Hallucinosis with REM Sleep Behavior Disorder. Cortex. 2016 Jan;74:96-106.


  1. Pre-operative Image-based Segmentation of the Cranial Nerves and Blood Vessels in Microvascular Decompression: Can We Prevent Unnecessary Explorations? Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2015 Dec;139:159-65.
  2. Multimodal Navigated Skull Base Tumor Resection using Image-based Vascular and Cranial Nerve Segmentation: A Prospective Pilot Study. Surg Neurol Int. 2015 Nov 19;6:172.
  3. The DTI Challenge: Toward Standardized Evaluation of Diffusion Tensor Imaging Tractography for Neurosurgery. J Neuroimaging. 2015 Nov-Dec;25(6):875-82.
  4. Tendon-Driven Continuum Robot for Endoscopic Surgery: Preclinical Development and Validation of a Tension Propagation Model. IEEE ASME Trans Mechatron. 2015 Oct;20(5):2252-63.
  5. Clinical Implementation of Integrated Whole-genome Copy Number and Mutation Profiling for Glioblastoma. Neuro Oncol. 2015 Oct;17(10):1344-55.
  6. Search A New Paradigm for Individual Subject Language Mapping: Movie-Watching fMRI. J Neuroimaging. 2015 Sep;25(5):710-20.
  7. "Extraoperative" MRI (eoMRI) for Brain Tumor Surgery: Initial Results at a Single Institution. World Neurosurg. 2015 Jun;83(6):921-8.
  8. Smart Stylet: The Development and Use of a Bedside External Ventricular Drain Image-Guidance System. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg. 2015 Feb;93(1):50-8.
  9. Reconstruction of the Arcuate Fasciculus for Surgical Planning in the Setting of Peritumoral Edema using Two-tensor Unscented Kalman Filter Tractography. NeuroImage: Clinical 2015 Mar; 7:815-22.
  10. Comparison of Seeding Methods for Visualization of the Corticospinal Tracts using Single Tensor Tractography.Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2015 Feb;129:44-9.
  11. Multimodal Imaging for Improved Diagnosis and Treatment of Cancers. Cancer. 2015 Mar 15;121(6):817-27. Review.
  12. Comparative Effectiveness of Frame-Based, Frameless, and Intraoperative Magnetic Resonance Imaging–Guided Brain Biopsy Techniques. World Neurosurg. 2015 Mar;83(3):261-8.


  1. Decoupling Function and Anatomy in Atlases of Functional Connectivity patterns: Language Mapping in Tumor Patients. Neuroimage. 2014 Dec;103:462-75.
  2. Local Control after Fractionated Stereotactic Radiation Therapy for Brain Metastases. J Neurooncol. 2014 Nov;120(2):339-46. doi: 10.1007/s11060-014-1556-5.
  3. Intraoperative Mass Spectrometry Mapping of an Onco-metabolite to Guide Brain Tumor Surgery. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 Jul;111(30):11121-6.
  4. Defining Language Networks from Resting-state fMRI for Surgical Planning: A Feasibility Study. Hum Brain Mapp. 2014 Mar;35(3):1018-30.
  5. Atypical Presentation of Cerebral Schistosomiasis Four Years after Exposure to Schistosoma Mansoni. Epilepsy Behav Case Rep. 2014 Feb 11;2:80-5.
  6. Focal Cortical Dysplasia IIb Presenting as Slowly Progressive Aphasia Mimicking a Brain Tumor. Seizure. 2014 Feb;23(2):161-3.


  1. Mass Spectrometry Imaging as a Tool for Surgical Decision-making. J Mass Spectrom. 2013 Nov;48(11):1178-87.
  2. Fiber Clustering versus the Parcellation-based Connectome. Neuroimage. 2013 Oct 15;80:283-9.
  3. Hemispheric Lateralization Interrupted: Material-Specific Memory Deficits in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy. Front Hum Neurosci. 2013 Sep 2;7:546.
  4. Rapid, Label-free Detection of Brain Tumors with Stimulated Raman Scattering Microscopy. Sci Transl Med. 2013 Sep 4;5(201):201ra119.
  5. Extended Broca's Area in the Functional Connectome of Language in Adults: Combined Cortical and Subcortical Single-subject Analysis using fMRI and DTI Tractography. Brain Topogr. 2013 Jul;26(3):428-41.
  6. Effect of Disease and Recovery on Functional Anatomy in Brain Tumor Patients: Insights from Functional MRI and Diffusion Tensor Imaging. Imaging Med. 2013 Aug 1;5(4):333-46.
  7. Functional and Structural Differences in the Hippocampus Associated with Memory Deficits in Adult Survivors of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2013 Feb;60(2):293-300.
  8. Pneumatically Driven Finger Movement: A Novel Passive Functional MR Imaging Technique for Presurgical Motor and Sensory Mapping. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2013 Jan;34(1):E5-7.
  9. Ambient Mass Spectrometry for the Intraoperative Molecular Diagnosis of Human Brain Tumors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Jan 29;110(5):1611-6.


  1. Unbiased Groupwise Registration of White Matter Tractography."> Int Conf Med Image Comput Comput Assist Interv. 2012 Oct;15(Pt 3):123-30.
  2. Neuronavigation in the Surgical Management of Brain Tumors: Current and Future Trends. Expert Rev Med Devices. 2012 Sep;9(5):491-500.
  3. Clinical Applications and Future Directions of Functional MRI."> Semin Neurol. 2012 Sep;32(4):466-75.
  4. PTFOS: Flexible and Absorbable Intracranial Electrodes for Magnetic Resonance Imaging. PLoS One. 2012 Sep;7(9):e41187.
  5. fMRI-DTI Modeling via Landmark Distance Atlases for Prediction and Detection of Fiber Tracts. Neuroimage. 2012 Mar;60(1):456-70.
  6. Visual Pathway Study using in vivo DTI Tractography to Complement Classical Anatomy. Neurosurgery. 2012 Mar;70(1 Suppl Operative):145-56; discussion 156.


  1. Download as Learning an Atlas of a Cognitive Process in its Functional Geometry. Inf Process Med Imaging. 2011;22:135-46.
  2. Visual Pathway Study Using in vivo DTI Tractography to Complement Classical Anatomy. Neurosurgery. 2012 Mar;70(1 Suppl Operative):145-56; discussion 156.
  3. Development of Stereotactic Mass Spectrometry for Brain Tumor Surgery. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 2011 Apr;22(2):307-14
  4. Special Surgical Considerations for Functional Brain Mapping. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 2011 Apr;22(2):111-32
  5. Development of a Clinical Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Service. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 2011 Apr;22(2):307-14. Review.
  6. Intra-operative Real-time Querying of White Matter Tracts during Frameless Stereotactic Neuronavigation. Neurosurgery. 2011 Feb;68(2):506-16.
  7. Interactive Diffusion Tensor Tractography Visualization for Neurosurgical Planning. Neurosurgery. 2011 Feb;68(2):496-505.


  1. Functional Geometry Alignment and Localization of Brain Areas. Adv Neural Inf Process Syst. 2010 Dec;1:1225-33.
  2. Current Dipole Orientation and Distribution of Epileptiform Activity Correlates with Cortical Thinning in Left Mesiotemporal Epilepsy. Neuroimage. 2010 Oct 1;52(4):1238-42.
  3. Contributions to Singing Ability by the Posterior Portion of the Superior Temporal Gyrus of the On-language-dominant Hemisphere: First Evidence from Subdural Cortical Stimulation, Wada Testing, and fMRI. Cortex. 2010 Mar;46(3):343-53.
  4. Morphological Characteristics of Brain Tumors Causing Seizures. Arch Neurol. 2010 Mar;67(3):336-42.
  5. A Combined fMRI and DTI Examination of Functional Language Lateralization and Arcuate Fasciculus Structure: Effects of Degree versus Direction of Hand Preference. Brain Cogn. 2010 Jul;73(2):85-92.
  6. The Fiber Laterality Histogram: A New Way to Measure White Matter Asymmetry. Med Image Comput Comput Assist Interv. 2010;13(Pt 2):225-32.


  1. OpenIGTLink: An Open Network Protocol for Image-guided Therapy Environment. Int J Med Robot. 2009 Dec;5(4):423-34.
  2. Threshold-independent Functional MRI Determination of Language Dominance: A Validation Study Against Clinical Gold Standards. Epilepsy Behav. 2009 Oct;16(2):288-97.
  3. Comparison of Blocked and Event-related fMRI Designs for Pre-surgical Language Mapping. Neuroimage. Neuroimage. 2009 Aug;47 Suppl 2:T107-15.
  4. Resolving Crossings in the Corticospinal Tract by Two-tensor Streamline Tractography: Method and Clinical Assessment using fMRI. Neuroimage. 2009 Aug;47 Suppl 2:T98-106.
  5. High b-value Apparent Diffusion-Weighted Images from CURVE-ball DTI. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2009 Jul;30(1):243-8.
  6. Tract-Based Morphometry for White Matter Group Analysis. Neuroimage. 2009 Apr 15;45(3):832-44.
  7. An Intraoperative Brain-shift Monitor using Shear-mode Transcranial Ultrasound: Preliminary Results. J Ultrasound Med. 2009 Feb;28(2):191-203.


    Group Independent Component Analysis of Language fMRI from Word Generation Tasks. Neuroimage. 2008 Sep 1;42(3):1214-25.
  1. Fieldmap-Free Retrospective Registration and Distortion Correction for EPI-Based Functional Imaging. Int Conf Med Image Comput Comput Assist Interv. 2008;11(Pt 2):271-9.
  2. A Surgical Planning Method for Functional MRI Assessment of Language Dominance: Influences from Threshold, Region-of-Interest, and Stimulus Mode. Brain Imaging and Behavior. 2008 Apr;2(2):59-73.
  3. Compensation of Geometric Distortion Effects on Intraoperative Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Enhanced Visualization in Image-guided Neurosurgery. Neurosurgery. 2008 Mar;62(3 Suppl 1):209-15; discussion 215-6. Click here to view this article as a PDF.
  4. Images of Restricted Water in Brain with Applications to Neurosurgery. Abstract, Intl Soc Mag Reson Med 2008.
  5. Quantification of White Matter Fiber Orientation at Tumor Margins with Diffusion Tensor Invariant Gradients. Proc Intl Soc Mag Reson Med 2008.
  6. Identification of essential language areas by combination of fMRI from different tasks using probabilistic independent component analysis. Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Bioinformatics and Biomedical Engineering, iCBBE2008.
  7. Clinical Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Diffusion Tensor Imaging for Surgical Planning. Tutorial at the First annual NIH-sponsored Image-Guided Interventions Workshop 2008 March.


  1. Distortion Reduction in EPI Based on Minimal FOV. Abstract #3721, Intl Soc Mag Reson Med 2007.
  2. Tract-Based Morphometry. Int Conf Med Image Comput Comput Assist Interv. 2007;10(Pt 2):161-168.
  3. Object Naming is a more Sensitive Measure of Speech Localization than Number Counting: Converging Evidence from Direct Cortical Stimulation and fMRI. Neuroimage, 37(1, Suppl 1), 100-8, 2007. Click here to view this article as a PDF.
  4. Quantitative Comparison of Functional MRI and Direct Electrocortical Stimulation for Functional Mapping. J Med Robot. 2007 Sep;3(3):262-70.
  5. Rater-dependent Accuracy in Predicting the Spatial Location of Functional Centers on Anatomical MR Images. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2007 Apr;109(3):225-35.
  6. Non-rigid Alignment of Pre-operative MRI, fMRI, and DT-MRI with Intra-operative MRI for Enhanced Visualization and Navigation in Image-guided Neurosurgery. Neuroimage. 2007 Apr 1;35(2):609-24. Click here to view this article as a PDF.
  7. Functional Brain Mapping and Its Applications to Neurosurgery. Neurosurgery. 2007; 60(4, Suppl 2), 185-201. Click here to view this article as a PDF.


  1. Image-guided Neurosurgery at Brigham and Women’s Hospital. IEEE Eng Med Biol Mag. 2006 Sep-Oct;25(5):67-73. Click here to view this article as a PDF
  2. Diffusion Tensor and Functional MRI Fusion with Anatomical MRI for Image-guided Neurosurgery. Int Conf Med Image Comput Comput Assist Interv. 2006;6(Pt 1):407-415.
  3. Functional MRI of Memory in the Hippocampus: Laterality Indices may be more Meaningful if Calculated from whole Voxel Distributions. Neuroimage. 2006 Aug 15;32(2):592-602. Click here to view this article as a PDF
  4. The Brain Basis for Memory: Insights from fMRI, Intracranial EEG, and Epilepsy Patients. Epilepsy Behav. 2006 Feb;8(1):115-26.
  5. Integrated Image and function-guided Surgery in Eloquent Cortex: A Technique Report. The Int J Med Robotics Comput Assist Surg, 2(1), 75-83, 2006.
  6. Integration of Patient Specific Modeling and Advanced Image Processing Techniques for Image Guided Neurosurgery.SPIE Medical Imaging 2006
  7. Toward Real-Time Image Guided Neurosurgery Using Distributed and Grid Computing. Proceedings of the ACM/IEEE conference on Supercomputing 2006; 37-50.


  1. Hybrid Formulation of the Model-based Non-rigid Registration Problem to Improve Accuracy and Robustness. Med Image Comput Comput Assist Interv Int Conf Med Image Comput Comput Assist Interv. 2005;8(Pt 2):295-302. Click here to view this article as a PDF
  2. Robust Non-Rigid Registration to Capture Brain Shift from Intra-Operative MRI. IEEE Trans Med Imaging. 2005 Nov;24(11):1417-27.
  3. A review of Atypical Language Representation in Epilepsy: Implications for injury-induced brain reorganization. Epilepsy and Behavior. 2005 Jun;6(4):473-87.
  4. Capturing Intraoperative Deformations: Research Experience at Brigham and Women's Hospital. 2005 Apr;9(2): 145-62.
  5. Memory Encoding in Alzheimer's Disease: An fMRI Study of Explicit and Implicit Memory. Brain. 2005 128: 773-87.
  6. Functional MRI Memory Mapping for Epilepsy Surgery Planning: A Case Report. J Epilepsy Clin Neurophysiol 2005; 11(1):39-44.


  1. An Anisotropic Material Model for Image Guided Neurosurgery. Int Conf Med Image Comput Comput Assist Interv. 2004;7(Pt 2):267-75.
  2. Evaluating requirements for spatial resolution of fMRI for neurosurgical planning. Hum Brain Mapp. 2004 Jan;21(1):34-43.
  3. Minimalist Approach: Functional Mapping. Clin Neurosurg. 2002;49:90-102.
  4. Memory lateralization in medial temporal lobe epilepsy assessed by functional MRI. Epilepsia. 2002 Aug;43(8):855-63.
  5. Material-specific lateralization in the medial temporal lobe and prefrontal cortex during memory encoding. Brain. 2001 Sep;124(Pt 9):1841-54.
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